Cambridge Earthquake Impact Database
Timber frame with unreinforced masonry infill

This is the traditional building type in much of Turkey, and is entirely different from timber frame common in Britain or the United States. The proportion of this building type in the current building stock of Turkey is rapidly decreasing, despite its superior seismic performance compared to many of the masonry types. There are several variations of timber construction in Turkey but the most common are the so-called ‘badgadi’ and ‘himis’ construction. Both styles of construction use large unprocessed hand-hewn logs or sawed lumber for vertical and horizontal structure and the difference mainly consists on the type of infill used. Diagonal bracing is often used in corners or between openings. Timber buildings are mostly built on stone foundations, for weather protection. Bagdadi refers to closely spaced laths nailed to the vertical timber members and then covered with mud plaster mixed with straw, cobbles or stones. Himis consists of mud or adobe blocks used as infill between the timber members.

Features affecting earthquake performance are: age and state of preservation of the timber; infill material; good connection of diagonal bracings; weight of roof. The seismic performance of bagdadi and himis buildings is quite similar.

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